Industrial IOT (IIOT) – Hype or Reality

We have been hearing a lot about IIOT to be the real revolution happening or industry 4.0 or the next industrial revolution. However its not like a eureka moment and it’s not something set out in future. It’s been an evolution into it for past many years. Factories were already getting digital with the industrial internet, with Industrial IOT its just picked up pace. The tools, technology and ease of data access has accelerated the pace of this adoption.

Large industrial houses like GE or Siemens or ABB were always an IIOT company although they were not known for it. They had the ability to monitor and managed the expensive machinery health Since it was important for them to prevent downtime to customers . It also enabled them to learn in real time how machine was being used to improve their engineering. The thing that has changed is that this capability can be offered and implemented by any industrial plant of any size or revenue.

IIOT is a vast area which includes everything from sensors to data big data & AI. After ERP, IIOT will change it further to pick up on problems sooner and there by saving time and money . Imagine a small shop manufacturing pumps – They can now be connected real-time to their sales offices so they know which pumps are selling each day which in turn enables them to adjust the production to what’s needed more, to getting inventory only when they need based on this data, and the predictive maintenance systems enable them to know if there is any flaws in the manufacturing process and once the pumps are installed at customer premises they can collect the live data and alert customer of any possible problem they are foreseeing .

There are many companies operating in this space trying to address different parts of the puzzle . At SequoiaAT we have been fortunate to work with 2 companies in this space @opabydesign work in building condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. @Deepthoughts works on building energy monitoring solutions for factories to ensure that machines are running efficiently and at optimum energy consumption

We may not see or experience much change in daily life unless we are involved in the industry or factory and that’s our daily job. Supervisors expertise to be called upon to identify and fix a problem is going away as a decision will be made on actual data and not the experience of a floor supervisor. Today if you are a small shop, and say a machine starts making noise most likely your workers are depended on more experienced people to troubleshoot and tell what the problem could be with help of these cheap but effective smart devices .

Link to Article on Linkedin

Bringing home SAE J1939 Heavy-Duty Protocol Simulation

The J1939 standard for heavy-duty vehicles drafted by the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) in the mid-90s was driven originally by the “ECU trend” with the main objective of controlling exhaust gas emissions under increasingly tightening US and European regulations. Having gained wide acceptance ever since among diesel engine manufacturers, the SAE J1939 heavy-duty protocol has presently reached the stature of the de-facto standard for Truck and Bus manufacturers worldwide, for communication between various vehicle components and for diagnostics.

J1939 is a set of standards that includes a higher layer messaging protocol that works over CAN (Controller Area Network) protocol at the physical layer. The communication model supports both peer-to-peer and broadcast communication. The J1939 message format uses the Parameter Group Number (PGN) to label a group of related parameters, each of which may be represented by a Suspect Parameter Number (SPN). Continuously varying vehicle parameters (like Engine RPM etc.) are defined along with their valid range, offset, scaling etc. Besides, discrete (ON/OFF) parameters (like Brake Switch ON etc.) are defined separately. Commands to Enable/Disable specific vehicle functions (like Engine Fuel Actuator Control etc.) are defined.

Time based updates happen at 20 milliseconds (or lower) repetition rate, whereas the rate is significantly higher at higher Engine RPMs. Some periodic messages contain information that is of particular interest only when a specific state change occurs, and there is a defined range of repetition rates for these messages. Diagnostic messages (DMs) from various sub systems (like emission control etc.) are defined as per the Diagnostics Application Layer of the J1939 standard that includes services like periodic broadcasts of active DTCs (Diagnostic Trouble Codes), reading and clearing DTCs etc. Manufacturer specific parameter groups are supported that allow OEMs to define their proprietary message in addition to standard messages.

ECU design engineers of vehicle sub-systems at automotive OEMs, Tier-1 suppliers and R&D Service Companies routinely use J1939 Simulators for their product development, test and validation activities. In the early stages of development, a simulator comes handy for providing signals from other vehicle components exactly the same way as it would be in the real vehicle environment without the need for an actual vehicle in the lab. For instance a design engineer working on an ECU development program for Transmission Control would need signals from Engine Control system, Braking System etc. in order to validate his design functionality and performance. The ECU would get all these signals from the Simulator exactly as it would receive them in a vehicle environment, the physical connection provided by 2 CAN wires (CAN-HI and CAN-LO) and Ground (GND), taken out from the Simulator’s 16-pin OBD (or 9-pin D-Sub) connector using a custom wire harness to the mating connector of the ECU.

The J1939 simulator provides the design engineer with the ability to generate and vary individual parameters in order to check the response of the system under design/test. The required variations could be manually controlled using (rotary knob) potentiometers for continuously varying parameters. Some simulators automate the variation according to a pre-defined curve. A linear ramp that sweeps the full range (0-100%) of the given parameter, in increasing steps of 1%, is typical. Advanced simulators based on engine modeling data provide the ability to vary multiple parameters simultaneously in a specific relationship with reference to each other for better real-world simulation. A cost effective alternative to this would be to record multiple parameters of interest from the actual vehicle under standard test/driving conditions for the required duration, also known as the drive signature, and playing back the captured signature in the lab in the same time base, although with a lesser timing accuracy. Add on the simulation of actual vehicle hardware, like sensors, actuators etc. to create a fully Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL) simulation and the full-extent of the simulation picture becomes complete.

Indian automotive R&D groups have traditionally banked on imported tools for J1939 simulation. Originating from USA, Canada, Germany etc. many of them come with pricey licenses although offering just an elementary 5-signal manual simulation. A few sophisticated ones with automatic ramp sweeps etc. are super-pricey, that even Indian R&D subsidiaries of multi-national OEMs have to contend with time-sharing the same simulator across multiple engineers/teams. It is in this context that a strong need is being felt for a high quality, cost effective J1939 Simulator that is indigenously designed and manufactured, that could provide many Indian customers the much-needed scalability for their R&D activities and reduce their dependence on imports.

Awareness on the availability of an indigenous product is the starting point however strict adherence to the standard is a hard requirement, including very strict timing considerations, in order to create a positive lean among automotive customers who always select and use only “proven technology”. Benchmarking data with reference to competing products could help customers get quantitative insights. Pilot trials could help them in familiarizing themselves with the indigenous product and to evaluate it against their experience with imported tools.

We at Deep Thought Systems design manufacture and supply J1939 simulators to Indian automotive customers, in addition to other offerings for CAN/J1939 logging, test/diagnostics, J1939 based displays and ECU manufacturing test automation. In our endeavors in bringing the above mentioned advantages to the Indian automotive R&D sector, we found that a customer’s need many a time is a highly customized simulator for their specific application. And thanks to our expertise in automotive protocols like CAN, OBD-II and J1939, and being fully in control of the hardware design, component sourcing and manufacturing as well as the embedded firmware and application development, we find ourselves well placed to deliver to these custom needs.

Post Scriptum:

A later industry development has been that all the major European heavy-duty OEMs came together in 2000 to co-develop the Fleet Management Standard (FMS) which is based on J1939 that incidentally opened up possibilities for manufacturer-agnostic telematics applications. The J1939 simulator, combined with suitable GPS simulation having the required levels of performance, offer telematics product designers a proven means to quickly test and validate their design well before going for in-vehicle tests.

 Link to article on Linkedin

Alexa- What excites me to explore this latest from Jeff Bezos’s research hub

 Anu Pauly

Anu Pauly

Nowadays voice communication has become the easiest way to interact than the other mediums of communications. Since 1994, when Jeff Bezos founded Amazon, they have been the inventors from STEM to Prime to Web Services to Kindle and the latest addition of Echo, Echo Dot and Echo Show. Echo series connects to the voice-controlled intelligent personal assistant service Alexa, one among that best till date.  Alexa is named after the ancient library of Alexandria. Using Alexa you can call out your wishes and see them fulfilled—at least simple ones. For example to know the weather of any place, play music, do a Google search etc..

Alexa Enabled Devices available in the market are Amazon Echo, Echo Dot, Echo Show and a new addition announced The Echo Look. You can explore these amazing products in and login to Amazon.

The Alexa Voice Service is currently only available for US, German and UK customers with an Amazon account.

The architecture of Alexa is, when the user asks something like “Alexa, tell me the weather of San Francisco”, the audio request will go to the Amazon voice Service(AVS) i.e Alexa .It converts speech to text. The keywords are “Weather” and “San Francisco”, processes it and returns as Voice to User. Alexa Skills have two parts Configuration i.e. data in Developer Portal and Hosted Service are responding to User requests The Hosted Services available are Amazon Lambda or an internet accessible HTTPS endpoint with a trusted certificate. You can build skills using Alexa Skills Kit(ASK). The Skills that are supporting here are Custom Skills, Flash Briefing Skill and Smart Home Skill.

About the architecture of Alexa Skills Kit(ASK), when the user speaks a phrase beginning with “Alexa” and the Echo hears it, the audio is sent to AVS for processing. An Alexa skill request is sent to your server(Lambda) for business logic processing. Then server responds with a JSON payload including text to speak. Finally, AVS sends your text back to the device for voice output.

The specialties of these device are the far field’s microphone and there’s no need of an activation, simply say the trigger words like “Alexa”(default),”Echo”, “Computer”. So that it can respond to Voice Commands from almost anywhere within Earshot. Microsoft’s Cortana , Google Assistant and Apple’s Siri provides the similar Services. However, if you get used to Alexa it feels much more natural and responsive than speaking to a phone-based voice assistant. Voice control frees you from being constantly tethered to your smartphone.

Manufacturers of automobiles, kitchen appliances, door locks, sprinklers, garage-door openers and many other recently connected products are working to bring to Alexa or a similar voice-driven service to their devices

Alexa is particularly useful for smart-home because it allows you to control your connected devices without having to take out your phone and launch an App.

Despite the success and growing interest in Alexa products and services, Amazon still faces scrutiny over the potential privacy implications of having an always-on, always-listening device in peoples’ homes, cars and other personal spaces.

I was excited to know about Echo, so tried my part to add Custom Skill in Alexa. I could build a sample Quiz where Alexa acts as a Quiz Master. It was fun, but more importantly, I am onto see how effectively this can be benefited for Connected Homes.

Ultimately, Alexa is using natural language processing system(voice)to interact, so no need for the user to change his accent. Be You and Enjoy Alexa!

 Link to Article on Linkedin

IoT in Construction Industry

Aju Kuriakose

Aju Kuriakose ( Linkedin Profile)

I absolutely love my job and what we do at SequoiaAT. I am fortunate to learn about many new industries and technologies as we work on helping Startups and Fortune 500 companies with new product ideas. As part of engaging with a recent customer, I got a learn a lot about the home construction business in the USA.

I was surprised to see how one of the oldest industries know to mankind- the home building was slow in adopting the latest technology trends. Although the commercial construction side has been fast to adapt to the new technologies to provide energy efficient building, the home construction side has been way behind on this

I think the reason for slow adoption is Homes are basic necessities of humans and probably the biggest investment an average person makes in his/her life. So given everything equal, people, in general, will spend more money on buying a bigger house for same dollar value than buying a high-tech house. Also, another reason could be that the necessity always exists. There is no urgency to reinvent or adopt technology at a fast pace.

As Smart buildings become popular and the norm, the home construction industry will have to change itself and adapt itself to the new norms. Sooner or later there will be a disruptive force in the industry. The scope of bringing IoT-enabled technologies are unlimited in every part of the supply chain right from selling to occupancy. As an example – Having an IoT beacon beam out to potential buyer passing by information about the house or lot.

Incorporating some of the smart sensors for occupancy, temperature etc. during constructions itself rather than retrofitting. It will save 100’s and 1000’s of dollars for the homeowners in long run for a fraction of the additional cost while setting it up. Devices like Powerwalls from Tesla or leak Detection systems from Flowlabs will get embedded into the home construction process. Smart asset tracking and people tracking will ensure that right tools are present at the right place at right time.

The backend construction cycle itself will get faster with the use of technology as the tools & equipment be used can be tracked better and maintained better leading to less downtime and loss of working hours. IoT enables devices will also ensure better safety at the worksite and can lead to better co-ordination.

Even for a consumer point of view, warranties can be tracked better as every single component used in the house being build can be tracked and managed to their warranty.  I think like commercial building owners advertise how energy efficient the building are, builders need to start paying more attention to  HERS index (Home Energy Efficiency Rating System)

As of now, I think many of these technology implementations are at a hobbyist level and need mass adoption. I think buyers need to start pushing on the HERS index rating to put pressure on homebuilders to use better technology to produce more energy efficient homes.

Home construction companies which adopt and embrace the new technologies will have better and faster turn around time and edged out the competition. Plumbers, electricians, painters etc. will have to learn new skills to incorporate technology tools into their work to stay competitive.

Link to Article on Linkedin

Critical Success Factors for Medical Device Product Development

According to published market reports, by year 2021 medical device market is expected to grow to a staggering $340+ billion. The opportunities are expected to be more in general medical devices, cardiovascular and surgical & infection control segments. With such a tremendous market opportunities in the global market, it is imperative that medical device product developers to be aware of the stringent demands of design and development which emphasis on safety and compliance to established regulations and standards. Over the years, our experience with major medical product companies like Johnson & Johnson, Boston Scientific, Medtronics, Baxter, etc., we could see and experience various development approaches, challenges and stringent standards compliance needed by both client audit teams and independent audit teams. Some of the products developed included disposable colonoscope, automated sterilizers, blood glucose meters and a drug dispensing implantable device. This is an attempt to share our experience in essential elements in product design. Similar share on process elements will be posted soon.

Medical devices can be broadly classified into three market segments – Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Implantable. Based on Safety and Risk assessment the devices are classified into Class I, Class II or Class III device. Product designers and manufacturers, must demonstrate adequate controls and “compliance” to avoid being found guilty of deficiencies. It is important to understand that in this domain “intentions do not count but action alone”.

Product Development

Product development rigor depends on the product safety classification, history and whether it is a “first of its kind” product or “me too” product. Focus should be on characteristics of materials used, effective documentation from the proof of concept phase in case of first of its kind product. Manufacturing Process is important (especially material consistency and sterilization & hygiene). Software development needs to demonstrate complete verification and validation throughout the development life cycle.  Severity of device failure decides the development rigor (Level of Concern Analysis (LOCA). Proof of positive compliance needs to be recorded and submitted

The product life cycle phases are Concept à Design à Implement àManufacture à Disposal. This life cycle looks very much standard one but what differentiates is the focus you need to bring in each of these phases from product, process and compliance perspective. In concept phase inputs are to be considered from market, existing products, product category specific standards. In design phase DFX aspects should be planned and incorporated. Design rigor is brought in through processes like DFMEA (Design for Failure Mode Effect Analysis), Reliability Prediction, PFMEA ( Process Failure Mode Effect Analysis), System Hazard analysis, Software Hazard analysis, Requirement trace matrix, COTS (Commercial Off-the Shelf) products validation, test plans covering verification and validation with both positive and negative compliance.

User Interface design is another important aspect that needs to be practiced. This will contribute in improving the safety of medical devices and equipment by reducing the likelihood of user error. This can be accomplished by the systematic and careful design of the user interface, i.e., the hardware and software features that define the interaction between users and equipment.

Focus on Six early engagement areas will significantly contribute in developing a safe and reliable product. These are – PCB layout and fabrication, PCB assembly, Component engineering, Test engineering, System engineering and packaging and Product support.


Fundamental to designing and developing a medical product which is safe and effective is to integrate safety into product development. Objective should be to Remove or lower the risk at design phase, followed by Protecting for risks which cannot be removed at the design phase and failing which Inform the user about the residual risks through appropriate methods. The goal is to cancel all foreseeable life time of the apparatus – transportation, installation, usage, shutdown and disposal.

Link to Article on Linkedin 

Reading JUnit Source Code


Preparation and JUnit Basic Usage

First step is to download the JUnit source code, create a new project in Eclipse, and then import the downloaded JUnit code.

Second step is to define the code to be tested. Below is the code, it’s very simple, just calculates the sum of two integers.

public class SimpleClass {
    public static int add(int a, int b) {
        return a + b;

Third step is to write the test case. JUnit test cases can be implemented by inheriting the junit.framework.TestCase class. Methods, whose name begins with ‘test’, defined in subclasses of ‘TestCase’ will be treated as test cases. Multiple test cases can form a TestSuite. JUnit4 can also define test cases with @Test annotation.

public class TestSimpleClass extends TestCase {
    public void testAdd() {
        int result = SimpleClass.add(1, 1);
        Assert.assertEquals(2, result);

In the above code, the testAdd() method is parsed as a test case. You can also define a test case by defining the suite() method, which isn’t too much difference.

Now we are ready to run and test the code.

JUnit Source Code Structure

Below is JUnit’s package structure:

Package Stucture

The core code is in junit.framework package. Package junit.runner is for running the test cases, in which BaseTestRunner is an abstract class. Package Junit.awtui, junit.swingui, junit.textui are three different graphical interfaces to run test cases, each package has a TestRunner inherited from junit.runner.BaseTestRunner.

The code I red is mainly in junit.framework package, junit.textui package, and the abstract class BaseTestRunner.

Below is the class diagram:

Class Diagram

Running Process of JUnit

JUnit’s running process can be divided into three steps, preparaing test cases, running test cases and collecting test results. In following code, getTest(testcase) is to prepare test cases, doRun(suite, wait) is to run the test cases:

try {
    if (!method.equlas(""))
        return runSingleMethod(testCase, method, wait);
    Test suite = getTest(testCase);
    return doRun(suite, wait);
} catch (Exception e) {
    throw new Exception("Could not create and run test suite: " + e);

Below is the sequence diagram:

Sequence Diagram

Design Pattern in JUnit


JUnit uses composite pattern when creating test cases. Junit.framework.Test is the interface that defines the test case, which includes both run() and countTestCases () methods. TestCase and TestSuite are two classes that implement the interface, TestCase is for single test case, and TestSuite is for a collection of test cases.


Observer pattern is used when collecting test results. junit.framework.TestResult manges a collection of TestListeners, these TestLiteners will be notified when execution of test case is failed.

Manage a collection of TestListener:

* Registers a TestListener
public synchronized void addListener(TestListenser listener) {

*  unregisters a TestListener
public synchronized void removeListener(TestListenser listener) {

When the test case fails to execute, notify TestListenner to handle the errors:

public synchronized void addError(Test test, Throwable t) {
    fErrors.addElement(new TestFailure(test, t));
    for (Enumeration e = cloneListeners().elements; e.hasMoreElements; ) {
        ((TestListener)e.nextElement()).addError(test, t);

Template Method

Template mode is relatively simple, it’s used in BaseTestRunner.getTest(), TestCase.runBare().

Link to article on GitHub

Implementing FAQ Bots using Microsoft Bot Framework

 Subitha Sudhakaran

When we build complex apps, the customers or users will have several queries regarding the working of this App. In normal case, we will provide help documents, FAQ or a forum to submit their queries etc. But now the trend is to move to conversational computing. Bots are the emerging mode for conversational computing. We can use Bots to simplify the customer interactions using the services like Skype, mail, Facebook messenger etc. We can consider it as an artificial user. Even if it is an artificial user, it should be smart enough to do the things which replace human activities. But Bots can be smart, semi- smart or dummy based on how we implement it. Artificial intelligence is the key for Smart BOTs.

I have been exploring and working on using Microsoft Bot framework at SequoiaAT, we can build and deploy chat bot’s across different services. It is intended to be cross- platform and cloud-based. Each Bot application is available to the users through a set of channels such as Skype, mail, text etc. Bot connector is the central component that connected our Bot with these channels. You can configure in which all channels your bot should be available. The architecture of a Bot connector is REST based i.e. there is no constraint on framework or the language. The only constraints are given by the endpoint names and exposed behaviour. Bot builder SDK s an open source SDK hosted on Github. There are two SDKs, one for to use with .Net and one for Node.js.

FAQ BOTS – Microsoft is continuing to update their services, adding new features and functions. Now it includes support for Azure Bot services, a cloud based development platform. Microsoft has implemented different templates to make it easier to use. One of the useful templates is “Question and Answer”. This is an ideal template for anyone building a customer service bot because it can work with your FAQs. In many cases, question and answer already exists in contents like FAQ in some documents. QnAMaker tool will allows us to consume the existing FAQ content and expose it as an HTTP endpoint. QnAMaker is a free web based service to respond to the users’ queries in a conversational way. So there is no coding required developing, training and managing the Bot service using QnA Maker.  As an end user you are only required to provide the predefined question and answer to the QnA  and It takes care of the rest. The result will be an endpoint which accepts the questions and returns a json response containing the matching response.

Bot framework is implemented by wiring up with LUIS (Language Understanding Intelligent Serivce). We don’t need to ask the exact question we stored in knowledgebase to get the relevant answer. It will look for keywords and based on the keywords, it provide appropriate responses. Sometimes it may match more than one possible responses. In that case, it will return the answer with high score. QnA Maker will help us to take our existing knowledge base and help us to turn into conversational services.

Pre-requisite for creating a FAQ BOT using the QnA Maker is a Microsoft id to create a QnA Bot service. We can login to the site for creating the QnA Service. Creating the QnA service is a pretty straight forward with minimum steps. One of the advantages I see here is, it is easy to create a FAQ bot for existing applications if we already have FAQ documents in some document format or in deployed in any page. Supported FAQ documents are .tsv, .pdf, .doc, .docx. So basically we can provide this document or page URL as an input while creating the QnA service. We are permitted to provide multiple input files and it will add the question and answer as a key value pair in its knowledge base. For new applications, if we don’t have any FAQ documents already, we create Question answer pair while creating the service itself. It supports testing our service in a conversational way before publishing the service. Once we published the service, we can make simple HTTP calls to call the QnA Maker service from our BOT applications. Basically when a user ask a question, the BOT application will internally pass the user keyword to the QnA service and will check the knowledge base for approximate matching record.

Once you are done creating the Bot application and integrating it with the QnA service, we need to publish that on the Microsoft Azure. For that you need Microsoft Azure subscription. You can get a free trial for limited period. It is possible to publish our Bot application directly from the Visual studio using the Publish option available. We just only need to follow the Publish wizard steps to complete the process. Finally we can see our published application on Microsoft Azure. After publishing, we need to register your Bot with Microsoft Bot framework.

For registering your Bot, you need to sign in using your Microsoft id and click on the register bot option. We need to fill in the details it needs. There we can see a BOT ID and an App Secret .These are used for authenticating our Bot application with the Microsoft Bot framework. Bot interacts with users naturally from your website or from different other channels. Current supported channels are Skype, Slack, Facebook Messenger, Office 365 mail, teams etc. We can decide in which on channel we would like to add our Bot application while registering the BOT. We can select the channels from the list of supported channels. Once you have added your bot to any of these services, it is always online and you can send message anytime and get an instant response.

Get ready to talk with Smart Devices

Aju Kuriakose

Controlling devices at home and workplace with voice was what we saw only in SciFi movies a few years ago. However with the advancement in AI, NLP etc. this has become a reality now. The number of devices with which we can interact via voice at home and office has grown in past 3-4 years.

Amazon has an undisputed leadership in this and its ecosystem is way ahead in market penetration compared to its competitor. There are many more companies in the foray including OK google and Cortana from Microsoft. There are also many smaller companies like Cyberon, Conexant all working towards enabling voice controlled devices.

As per Strategy Analysis voice could capture up to 12% of Industrial-IoT applications by 2022 and In the consumer segment, voice has the potential to capture up to 18% of application in the 2020 to 2022 timeframe.

Using voice to control devices will dominate and become the most preferred way to interact with IoT devices in coming years. It is because voice is the most natural way to communicate. Amazon and Google have made it very easy to voice enable smart devices. It is also very affordable today as devices don’t need to add much processing power because they leverage the cloud infrastructure to do the heavy lifting. Many companies are going to leverage this model, but there are companies like sensory which is trying to push the voice enablement to the edge. Its TrulyNatural is an embedded large vocabulary continuous speech recognizer system for devices which may not be cloud connected like a toaster or a space heater or a coffee maker.

Device manufacturers will have to pick bets on which technologies to integrate into their product for voice control as the landscape is still evolving. Most likely companies will end up integrating 2-3 leading voice enablement API’s into their product lines.

The key factors to be considered while making the technology choice is (a) Signal to noise ratio. These smart devices will be used in a variety of environment and the ability to capture voice by reducing background sounds is very important (b) Identification & Isolation – The system should have the capability to separate command from other ambient sounds. (c) Capture – Most times the source could be moving or at distance from the mic ( 1 meter to 10 meters) based on the environment in which it is installed. The devices should have the capability to accommodate this.

However, there are privacy and security issues which will have to be addressed as the popularity grows because voice-enabled devices are always listening for the wake-up keywords. So if someone hacks into the system, they will be able to listen to your private conversations. Also, ethical usage of the information obtained becomes important because companies trying to build on their NLP and AI algorithms may decide to listen to all our conversations to strengthen their capabilities.

Interacting with devices via voice reduces multiple steps in our daily lives when we control them. ( Example controlling a thermostat at home, in past we had to get up, go to the thermostat and press buttons multiple times to set the desired temperature. Today we can do it just with a simple statement ” Set temperature to 72 Degrees.”) . So irrespective of the challenges it may bring, we will continue to expand the boundaries of voice capability to control devices. As speech changed humans forever, enabling voice-based commands to communicate with everyday devices will change the world forever.  

Link to article on Linkedin

Configuring headless systems

Ram Mohan Ramakrishnan

Ram Mohan Ramakrishnan

Headless systems abound in the embedded world, in consumer electronics, industrial automation, communications, automobiles etc. In these embedded devices, a Human Machine Interface (HMI) is conspicuous by its absence. That’s to say the device lacks a user display like a monitor, or LCD panel and nor does it have an input device like a keyboard/mouse or remote control.

Yet many of these systems need manual configuration by the user. The authorized user should be able to change certain operating parameters of the device within a predefined set of values. For instance, the Right/Left speaker settings in a home audio system, or safety thresholds in an industrial chemical reaction process, or DNS Server setting on a network router, or an engine speed/RPM limit setting on a telematics device etc.

User configuration circumvents the need to change the embedded software code (also known as the firmware) to address each and every individual user’s preference/scenarios. This would otherwise imply access to the source code (which in most cases is not open to users), making the required code modification, followed by compilation and re-flashing the updated firmware into the device. Configurability, the attribute that allows users to change key system parameters (that are internally used for computation by the firmware code) to predefined values at run-time, has traditionally been a critical design consideration for embedded system designers.

The user performs configuration settings usually using a software application that runs on a desktop or mobile device that presents the user with a configuration interface. The first generation of configuration applications (configuration files being their predecessors) ran on the desktop and used the serial/RS232 port, omnipresent at that time, to connect to the embedded device. These Apps were ported later on either to USB, which replaced RS232 on most modern computers, or ran as such by leveraging the virtual com port (a USB driver abstraction) that made the USB port appear as a normal serial port to the App. Examples of these applications can be found with printers, CNC machines, process control equipment etc.

After the World Wide Web established itself as a platform-independent paradigm for server access, the HTTP protocol came to be adopted across the spectrum of embedded designers for the purpose of device configuration. The inventors of the “www” may never have dreamed that the advantage they had created of not having to install a client application (and ending up managing multiple versions of client Apps for various OS/versions) would some day result in the creation of tiny embedded web-servers that run inside embedded devices. These are low footprint HTTP servers (like HTTPD) which make it possible for the embedded device to be configured using just a browser running on any platform. The IP connectivity typically being over either wired network like Ethernet, or wireless that is Wi-Fi or cellular (GPRS/3g), implemented as light-weight TCP/IP protocol stacks (a la lwIP) to run on resource constrained systems.

For instance, most telecom equipment, network switches, routers and gateways come with configuration pages that can be accessed using a browser. The first step in configuration typically is login, to authenticate user credentials and confirming the level of authority to perform configuration tasks. Subsequently a set of configuration pages are served out from a central menu, where the user can set/change specific parameter values for a group of configuration parameters related to IP networking, that are grouped together on that page. For enterprise routers, the configuration includes simple settings, like DHCP/Static IP, Default Gateway, Subnet mask, DNS Settings etc., but grow pretty complex, to Firewall/DMZ settings, Access Control, VPN/tunneling, Port forwarding etc. Thus it requires a qualified and experienced networking engineer to configure it correctly and to maintain the network equipment up and running.

Narrowing down focus to the world of consumer electronics, a few major industry trends seem to have influenced the way users configure headless systems in the home entertainment space today.

1) The ongoing explosion of mobile Apps, on Android, iPhone, Windows phone etc. – To such an extent that “there is an App for anything and everything”! This seems to have turned the tables on the earlier “browser” trend. Who cares for the browser now, there’s an App that does it anyway! And everyone knows it’s a song to just download/install a (whatever) App from the (which ever) Store.

2) The proliferation of home routers – With exploding popularity and plummeting costs, that the term “IP address” today is considered the tech-ABC of modern life. (In the 70’s the term “IP address” used to be high-tech parlance, but today it forms a part of the general vocabulary of a high school kid!) Since IP networking involves a highly standardized set of settings, like DHCP/Static IP, DNS settings etc., a home user can usually manage to set it up without much trouble. Or can at least leave the defaults alone knowing it is good enough to work correctly!

3) Wi-Fi gaining the status of defacto standard in consumer electronics – Thanks mainly to its cable-free, high bandwidth and moderately high range qualities, all ideal for the home segment. Given the massive penetration of Wi-Fi in homes today, networking for most consumer-electronics manufacturers defaults to Wi-Fi, although occasional segments of wired Ethernet could still be present in the home.

Streaming media protocols like Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) that work over self-discovery based networking protocols like Universal Plug-n-Play (UPnP) therefore work seamlessly over Wi-Fi, making it a natural choice for most device manufacturers, ranging from the traditional players like Sony, LG, Samsung etc. to recent innovators in this space like Google, Microsoft, Amazon etc. (*) These devices are far from standardized in their function, ranging from simple audio streaming systems, or gaming consoles to full-fledged home theatre systems. Some of these products come with Wi-Fi remotes and configuration (mobile) Apps. The important commonality is that these devices are all accessible on the Wi-Fi network, all the time.

So why configuration for a consumer electronics device! Imagine a user picks up the product from a store and brings it home, so how does the device know the user’s home network details so that it can connect? How could the user tell the consumer electronics device, “this is my network SSID, and this is the passkey”? – A mandatory and generic configuration that is valid for any make/model, for these are the vital pieces of information without which the device cannot join the home network successfully.

Further configuration needs will depend on the nature and functionality of the device. For instance, for a DLNA compliant device, what is the role of that device, whether is it a controller, or a renderer etc. Being non-standard and product-specific configuration settings, a browser based configuration process using menu-driven web-pages may not be intuitive to most home users. Hence custom Apps on popular platforms like Android, iOS etc. (available on the respective App stores for users to download and install) have become in vogue.

The user being a layman here (unlike in the case of a network switch where the user is an experience network administrator) the Config. App needs to provide a zero-learning, intuitive and wizard-driven experience. The Config. App needs to anticipate the user’s concerns, learning curve and proactively push help, like context-sensitive FAQs or “How to” videos, rather than let issues happen and then provide troubleshooting tips. As someone rightly said, “think not how you as an engineer would use it, but how your mom and dad would, and get it to work correctly too”!

The duration of time when the user is configuring the device is called configuration (or config) mode, whereas most of the time while in normal operation serving the home entertainment function, it is said to be in normal mode. To support the web server design pattern for configuration purposes, the device could be switched to become a Wi-Fi Access Point while in config mode. This means that the Config. App (usually a mobile App) can now connect to the device, and the user can set the configurations. Whereas for performing its normal home entertainment function, the device could be switched back to act as Wi-Fi Station, that normally connects to the home router/Wi-Fi Access Point.

Modern Wi-Fi chipsets (a la Broadcom) come with multiple mode operation – Wi-Fi Station (STN) and Wi-Fi Access-Point (AP) modes. Alternatively, a Soft-AP implementation on a single mode chipset would also serve the same purpose, as long as it can be made to switch between modes. The actual switching to config mode could be triggered on a special combo keypress (often with predefined timing) on the device itself. For instance, the Config. App of a consumer electronics device could display the following instruction to the user, “To enter Config mode, press and hold the FFWD and REV buttons simultaneously for more than 10 seconds. The Yellow LED will start blinking to indicate it has entered Config mode “.

From a connectivity view-point it is interesting to note that while in Config mode, the device loses its connection with the home network, since it is now acting as an Access-Point. With the mode switch it has started its own network for configuration Apps to connect, during which its normal functionality like rendering music is not available. It is sometimes even confusing to users, especially if internet access is involved, like Internet Radio etc.

Switching back to normal mode typically happens at reboot. Alternatively it could be implemented as the response to a reboot command while in Config. Mode. Following this mode switch the device regains its ability to play music etc. Another interesting behavior is that when this mode switch/reboot happens, the Smartphone loses its Access Point effectively so it automatically rejoins the home network to which it was connected earlier, a subtle yet standard behavior across Smartphones.

Since the embedded device and its Config. App have now become two peer Wi-Fi stations on the home network, it necessitates a mechanism for the App to know if (and when) the device rejoins the network after reboot. This could be implemented in the device using a broadcast mechanism of datagram messages, which the App could be programmed to detect with a suitable timeout.

Given the need for the Config. App to be available to users on multiple Smartphone platforms like Android, iOS etc. embedded system designers have adopted HTTP-based RESTful APIs as the programming interface to the embedded device. The embedded web-server is in fact a REST Server exporting REST APIs, which are implemented either as GET or as POST requests. The mobile Apps could call these REST APIs, with the data being exchanged as JSON payload of these requests. The embedded firmware that includes the REST Server is usually validated early on in the development cycle using generic REST API Clients (a la Chrome Advanced REST API Client), following which the Android and iOS Apps could be developed and hosted in the respective Stores.

Although not related to configuration, another generic scenario encountered with consumer electronics devices is firmware upgrade, or OTA (Over-the-air) upgrade as it has come to be known. The App typically alerts the user regarding the availability of the latest firmware, based on which the user decides to initiate the upgrade. The firmware image gets downloaded from a designated server of the manufacturer, typically an FTP server, file integrity check is performed after download, the firmware image is written into Flash, the boot loader parameters are modified and the device reboots (often more than once). All of this happens sequentially, silently under the hood, the App finally informing the user regarding the status of the upgrade.

The OTA feature also helps the manufacturer ship the hardware to hit the stores early, while allowing them to conveniently roll out updated features to users. So the next time we buy a device, like a fitness band, and install its App and it triggers off an upgrade (the first-time upgrade often being unsolicited!), we know what’s been happening! The App therefore forms a critical link in the whole upgrade process since the user needs to be kept in the loop always.

Configuration of headless systems has come a long way, the connectivity and Apps migrating across multiple technologies and platforms. In consumer electronics an increasing list of non-Configuration features are getting included in the Apps, such as firmware upgrades, library settings, playlists, favorites etc., making today’s consumer electronics products ever more user friendly and competitive.

(*) – While products from most home audio leaders like Bose, Denon, Yamaha etc. do support the DLNA standard, some of them are known to be moving towards proprietary APIs for media streaming and control. However they will most probably continue to leverage the underlying UPnP layer for device discovery, description and connection services.

Leveraging Kaa IOT platform for quick prototyping

With the explosion of the number of smart devices, Remote diagnostic and Monitoring tools are in great demand, to reduce customer support costs and to improve predictive maintenance aspects. Since the complexity and features of the software/firmware of these smart devices have been growing exponentially, the troubleshooting of the devices is becoming more and more complex. But very few of them have matured sufficiently to handle smart devices. Some of the popular commercial remote troubleshooting solutions are LogMeIn and TeamViewer.

Recently at Sequoia, I was trying to develop a quick POC for remote diagnostic and monitoring solutions for multiple smart devices. The system envisaged would have a diagnostic app running on the smart device, a technician console for communicating with the app and a communication link between them. The challenge I had was twofold (a) the company was a startup and had limited resources (b) the short time line available to develop the POC. After considering several possible solutions, I chose Kaa, an IOT platform, that works well for the quick development of a remote diagnostic and monitoring system.

The main considerations in selecting an IOT platform for a low cost diagnostic system were the following,

  • Multi-platform support.
  • Ease of deployment and development.
  • Integration with 3rd party tools; for example, integration with data pipelines for big data processing and analytics.
  • Scope for feature addition to the existing platform.
  • Actively maintained open source project.
  • Detailed documentation and good community support.

Kaa was the perfect choice with the above attributes. Kaa ( is a 100% open source Apache licensed platform. It has good community support and documentation. Kaa provides integration with other data pipelines like Kafka (, Flume ( and Spark( The integration with these data pipelines are very useful, especially when planning an analysis on the collected data. It also integrates well with databases like Cassandra, Mongo DB etc.

There are many features in Kaa like Events, Data Collection, Notifications, Profilingetc. The Events feature of Kaa can be used for transferring bidirectional messages between the technician console and the remote diagnostic app running on the smart device. Both unicast and multicast messages between endpoints are supported through Kaa platform. In Remote Diagnostic System, an end point can be an app (diagnostic) on a smart device; the technician console can be a web dashboard, another app on a smart device or even a desktop application.

Endpoint device <=> Kaa Server <=> Endpoint device/Dashboard/a stand-alone desktop application / Bigdata Server / Database

Since Kaa platform supports multitenancy, only the end point application needs to be developed. All the rest of the communication is taken care of by the Kaa platform.

Troubleshooting information was very easy to obtain with the Kaa platform. This information can be used to identify the technical faults of a particular device or to analyze its maximum life span/stability.    Further the analysis possibilities are unlimited; the frequently occurring issues and the pattern of their solutions can used to  train a machine learning model. Such trained models can be used in the future for automating troubleshooting using a bot.

I was impressed by the robustness of the platform including 3rd party support and easy customization options.

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